# Device Library Catalog¶

## Basic components¶

### cap: Linear Capacitor¶

Connection diagram:

             || C
0 o----------||---------o 1
||

Netlist example:

cap:c1 1 2 c=10uF

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
c 0.0 F Capacitance

### ind: Inductor¶

Connection diagram:

         __  __  __  _
0       /  \/  \/  \/ \          1
o----+   /\  /\  /\  +-------o    External view
(_/ (_/ (_/

Netlist example:

ind:l1 1 0 l=3uH

#### Internal Topology¶

Internal implementation uses a gyrator (adds il internal node):

                                il/gyr    Term: il
0  o---------+            +----------------+
| gyr V(il)  |                |
+         /|\          /^\               |
Vin        ( | )        ( | ) gyr Vin    ----- gyr^2 * L
-         \V/          \|/             -----
|            |                |
1  o---------+            +----------------+
|
--- tref
V

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
l 0.0 H Inductance

### memd: Memductor¶

Connection diagram:

          +  Vin   -      Iin
_______________  ---->
0      |_   _   _   _| |         1
o----| |_| |_| |_| | |-------o    External view
|_____________|_|

Device equation:  is the memductance function.

Netlist example:

memd:m1 1 0 w = '1e3 * (np.cosh(1e6 * phi)-1.)'

Notes:

• the memductance function (W(phi)) is given as an expression in the w parameter. The independent variable is the memductor flux: phi. Constants and mathematical functions can also be used in the definition of w.
• The initial flux can be adjusted with the phi0 parameter
• the memductor loses its memory as the capacitor discharges through Rleak (Rleak is necessary to ensure a unique DC solution). The values of C and Rleak can be adjusted to change the time constant
• The capacitor value has no effect on the memductance, but has an effect in the internal model: a larger capacitor will produce lower voltages at vc.

#### Internal Topology¶

The internal implementation uses a gyrator and adds one internal node: vc. The voltage at vc is equal to (gyr/C) * phi, where gyr is a global variable that can be changed with the .options keyword:

      --> Iin
0  o---------+
|
+         /|\  i = w(phi) * Vin
Vin        ( | )
-         \V/  phi = (C/gyr) * vc
|
1  o---------+

Term: vc
+       +----------------+--------+---------,
|                |        |         |
/^\             -----      /        /^\
vc    ( | ) gyr Vin    ----- C    \ Rleak ( | ) phi0 * gyr / C / Rleak
\|/               |        /        \|/
|                |        |         |
-       +----------------+--------+---------'
|
--- tref
-

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
c 1e-05 F Auxiliary capacitance
phi0 0.0 Vs Initial flux
rleak 1000000000.0 Ohms Leackage resistance
w abs(1e-3*phi) Siemens Memductance function W(phi)

### memr: Memristor¶

Connection diagram:

          +  Vin   -      Iin
_______________  ---->
0      |_   _   _   _| |         1
o----| |_| |_| |_| | |-------o    External view
|_____________|_|

Device equation:  is the memristance function.

Netlist example:

memr:m1 1 0 m = '1e3 * (np.cosh(1e6 * q)-1.)'

Notes:

• the memristance function (M(q)) is given as an expression in the m parameter. The independent variable is the memristor charge (q). Constants and mathematical functions can also be used in the definition.
• The initial charge can be adjusted with the q0 parameter
• the memristor loses its memory as the capacitor discharges through Rleak (Rleak is necessary to ensure a unique DC solution). The values of C and Rleak can be adjusted to change the time constant
• The capacitor value has no effect on the memristance, but has an effect in the internal model: a larger capacitor will produce lower voltages at vc.

#### Internal Topology¶

The internal implementation uses a gyrator and adds 2 internal nodes: im and vc. The voltages at those terminals have the following meaning (gyr is a global variable that can be changed with the .options keyword):

im: Iin / gyr
vc: q / C

--> Iin                          Term: im
0  o---------+            +----------------+
| gyr V(im)  |                |
+         /|\          /^\              /|\
Vin        ( | )        ( | ) gyr Vin    ( | ) gyr^2 * M(q) * V(im)
-         \V/          \|/              \V/
|            |                |   q = C * vc
1  o---------+            +----------------+
|
--- tref
-

Term: vc
+       +----------------+--------+---------,
|                |        |         |
/^\             -----      /        /^\
vc    ( | ) gyr V(im)  ----- C    \ Rleak ( | ) q0 / C / Rleak
\|/               |        /        \|/
|                |        |         |
-       +----------------+--------+---------'
|
--- tref
-

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
c 1e-05 F Auxiliary capacitance
m abs(5e9*q) Ohms Memristance function M(q)
q0 0.0 As Initial charge
rleak 1000000000.0 Ohms Leackage resistance

### res: Resistor¶

Connection diagram:

              R
0 o--------/\/\/\/---------o 1

Normally a linear device. If the electro-thermal version is used (res_t), the device is nonlinear.

Netlist examples:

# Linear resistor (2 terminals)
res:r1 1 2 r=1e3 tc1=10e-3

# Electro-thermal resistor (nonlinear, 4 terminals)
res_t:r1 1 2 3 4 r=1e3 tc1=10e-3

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
l 0.0 m Length
narrow 0.0 m Narrowing due to side etching
r 0.0 Ohms Resistance
rsh 0.0 Ohms Sheet resistance
tc1 0.0 1/C Temperature coefficient 1
tc2 0.0 1/C^2 Temperature coefficient 2
temp None C Device temperature (None: use global temp.)
tnom 27.0 C Nominal temperature
w 0.0 m Width

#### Electro-thermal version¶

Electro-thermal version with extra thermal port: res_t

## Controlled Sources¶

### gyr: Gyrator¶

The gyrator converts Port 1 voltage into Port 2 current and vice-versa. Combined with the VCCS device it can be used to implement all the remaining controlled sources:

• VCVS = VCCS + gyrator
• CCCS = gyrator + VCCS
• CCVS = gyrator + VCCS + gyrator

Connection diagram:

     0  o---------+            +----------o 2
+                |            |                +
/|\          /^\
Vin1     g Vin2 ( | )        ( | ) g Vin1      Vin2
\V/          \|/
-                |            |                -
1  o---------+            +----------o 3

Netlist example:

gyr:gg 1 0 2 0 g=1m

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
g 0.001 Ohms Gyrator gain

### vccs: Voltage-controlled current source¶

Schematic:

           g Vc   (or if nonlinear, i(vc))
,---,
0 o-------( --> )---------o 1
---

2 o      +  Vc   -        o 3

By default the source is linear. If a nonlinear function is provided, the linear gain (g) is not used and must not be specified in the netlist.

Netlist examples:

vccs:g1 gnd 4 3 gnd g=2mS
vccs:iout 0 cout 1 0 f='1e-3 * np.tanh(vc)'

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
f   A Nonlinear function i(vc)
g 0.001 S Linear transconductance

## Distributed components¶

### tlinps4: 4-Terminal Physical Transmission Line¶

This model uses scattering parameters:

0 o===================================o 2
Z0
1 o===================================o 3

This model is similar to tlinpy4, but it is more robust and can handle lossless lines, even at DC, but internally requires 2 additional ports to keep track of and . This model is more suitable for convolution as the S parameters are better behaved than the Y parameters.

Netlist Examples:

tlinps4:tl1 in gnd out gnd z0mag=100. length=0.3m
.model c_line tlins4 (z0mag=75.00 k=7 fscale=1.e10 alpha = 59.9)

#### Internal Topology¶

The model is symmetric. The schematic for Port 1 is shown here:

         I1                              v1+ + v1-  Term:   v1-
--->                               ---->     v1p   ---->
0 o--------,                          ,------------+----------,  4
+             |                          |            |          |
|                          |           ,-,  s12 v2+|
V1            /|\ (v1+ - s12 v2+)/Z0     /^\          | |        /|\
( | )                      ( | )       1 | |       ( | )
-            \V/                    V1  \|/          '-'        \V/
|                          |            |          |
1 o--------+                          +---------+--+----------'
|
--- lref (6)
V

Internal terminal names: v1p (keeps track of ) and v1m (keeps track of )

Note: for a matched transmission line, s11 = s22 = 0 and s12 = s21. The equivalent ‘Y’ matrix is:

    |              1/Z0    -s12/Z0 |
|                              |
|             -s21/Z0    1/Z0  |
Y = |                              |
| -1            1        s12   |
|                              |
|        -1    s21        1    |

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
alpha 0.1 dB/m Attenuation
fscale 0.0 Hz Scaling frequency for attenuation
k 1.0   Effective relative dielectric constant
length 0.1 m Line length
tand 0.0   Loss tangent
z0mag 50.0 Ohms Magnitude of characteristic impedance

### tlinpy4: 4-Terminal Physical Transmission Line¶

This model uses Y parameters:

0 o===================================o 2
Z0
1 o===================================o 3

Code derived from fREEDA tlinp4 element. fREEDA implementation by Carlos E. Christoffersen, Mete Ozkar, Michael Steer

Two models are supported dependent on the secting of nsect: When nsect = 0 (not set) the frequency-domain model is enabled. When nsect > 0 the transmission line is expanded in nsect RLCG subsections.

Netlist Examples:

tlinpy4:tl1 in gnd out gnd z0mag=100. length=0.3m
.model c_line tlinpy4 (z0mag=75.00 k=7 fscale=1.e10 alpha = 59.9)

#### Internal Topology¶

The internal schematic when nsect = 0 is the following:

    0 o----+------,               ,-----+-------o 2
+         |      |               |     |              +
,-,     |               |    ,-,
v1        | |    /|\ y12 v2      /|\   | |             v2
y11 | |   ( | )           ( | )  | | y22
-        '-'    \V/      y21 v1 \V/   '-'             -
|      |               |     |
1 o----+------'               '-----+-------o 3

y11 = y22 , y12 = y21

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
alpha 0.1 dB/m Attenuation
fopt 0 Hz Optimum frequency for discrete approximation
fscale 0.0 Hz Scaling frequency for attenuation
k 1.0   Effective relative dielectric constant
length 0.1 m Line length
nsect 0   Enable discrete approximation with n sections
tand 0.0   Loss tangent
z0mag 50.0 Ohms Magnitude of characteristic impedance

## Semiconductor devices¶

### acm_i: Incomplete Intrinsic ACM MOSFET¶

Only (some) DC equations are implemented for now. Temperature dependence is not complete. Terminal order: 0 Drain, 1 Gate, 2 Source, 3 Bulk:

         Drain 0
o
|
|
|---+
|
Gate 1 o-----|<-----o 3 Bulk
|
|---+
|
|
o
Source 2

Netlist examples:

acm_i:m1 2 3 4 gnd w=10e-6 l=1e-6 type = n
acm_i:m2 4 5 6 6 w=30e-6 l=1e-6 type = p

#### Internal topology¶

For now only ids is implemented:

                 ,--o 0 (D)
|
|
|
|
/|\
(G) 1 o-       ( | ) ids(VD, VG, VS, VB)
\V/
|
|
|
|
(B) 3 o-         --o 2 (S)

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
gamma 0.631 V^(1/2) Bulk Threshold Parameter
kp 0.0005106 A/V^2 Transconductance Parameter
l 1e-05 m Channel length
phi 0.55 V Surface Potential
temp None C Device temperature (None: use global temp.)
theta 0.814 1/V Mobility Saturation Parameter
tnom 27.0 C Nominal temperature of model parameters
tox 7.5e-09 m Oxide Thickness
type n   N- or P-channel MOS (n or p)
vsat 80000.0 m/s Saturation Velocity
vt0 0.532 V Threshold Voltage
w 1e-05 m Channel width

#### Electro-thermal version¶

Electro-thermal version with extra thermal port: acm_i_t

### acms_i: Simplified ACM Intrinsic MOSFET¶

This model uses the simple equations for hand analysis. Only DC equations (with temperature dependence) included for now.

Terminal order: 0 Drain, 1 Gate, 2 Source, 3 Bulk:

         Drain 0
o
|
|
|---+
|
Gate 1 o-----|<-----o 3 Bulk
|
|---+
|
|
o
Source 2

Netlist examples:

acms_i:m1 2 3 4 gnd w=10e-6 l=1e-6 type = n
acms_i:m2 4 5 6 6 w=30e-6 l=1e-6 type = p

#### Internal topology¶

Only ids is implemented. In the future charges will be added:

                 ,--o 0 (D)
|
|
|
|
/|\
(G) 1 o-       ( | ) ids(VD, VG, VS, VB)
\V/
|
|
|
|
(B) 3 o-         --o 2 (S)

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
bex -1.5   Mobility temperature exponent
cox 0.0007 F/m^2 Gate oxide capacitance per area
isq 1e-07 A/V^2 Sheet normalization current
l 1e-05 m Channel length
n 1.3 F/m^2 Subthreshold slope factor
tcv 0.001 V/K Threshold voltage temperature coefficient
temp None C Device temperature (None: use global temp.)
tnom 27.0 C Nominal temperature of model parameters
type n   N- or P-channel MOS (n or p)
vth 0.5 V Threshold Voltage
w 1e-05 m Channel width

#### Electro-thermal version¶

Electro-thermal version with extra thermal port: acms_i_t

### bjt: Bipolar Junction Transistor¶

This device accepts 3 or 4 terminal connections.

Netlist examples:

bjt:q1 2 3 4 1 model = mypnp isat=4e-17 bf=147 iss=10fA
bjt:q2 2 3 4  model = mypnp isat=4e-17 bf=147 vaf=80 ikf=4m
svbjt:q3 2 3 4 1 model = mypnp vaf=80 ikf=4m iss=15fA

# Electro-thermal versions
bjt_t:q2 2 3 5 1 pout gnd model = mypnp
svbjt_t:q3 2 3 5 1 pout gnd model = mypnp

# Model statement
.model mypnp bjt_t (type=pnp isat=5e-17 cje=60fF vje=0.83 mje=0.35)

#### Extrinsic Internal Topology¶

RC, RE and a Collector-Bulk connection are added to intrinsic BJT models:

            RC    Term: ct      Term: et   RE
C (0) o---/\/\/\/--+-----,         4----/\/\/\/----o  E (2)
|      \       /
|       \     /
-----    ---------
/ \         |
/   \        o
-----
|          B (1)
o Bulk (3)

If RE or RC are zero the internal nodes (ct, et) are not created. If only 3 connections are specified then the Bulk-Collector junction is not connected.

#### Important Note¶

This implementation does not account for the power dissipation in RE, RC. Use external thermal resistors if that is needed.

#### Intrinsic Model Information¶

Gummel-Poon intrinsic BJT model

This implementation based mainly on previous implementation in carrot and some equations from Pspice manual.

Terminal order: 0 Collector, 1 Base, 2 Emitter:

C (0) o----,         4----o  E (2)
\       /
\     /
---------
|
o

B (1)

Can be used for NPN or PNP transistors.

#### Intrinsic Internal Topology¶

Internally may add 2 additional nodes (plus reference) if rb is not zero: Bi for the internal base node and tib to measure the internal base current and calculate Rb(ib). The possible configurations are described here.

1. If RB == 0:

                +----------------+--o 0 (C)
|                |
/^\               |
( | ) ibc(vbc)     |
\|/               |
|               /|\
(B) 1 o---------+              ( | ) ice
|               \V/
/|\               |
( | ) ibe(vbe)     |
\V/               |
|                |
+----------------+--o 2 (E)
2. If RB != 0:

                            +----------------+--o 0 (C)
|                |
/^\               |
( | ) ibc(vbc)     |
gyr * tib       \|/               |
,---,           |               /|\
(B) 1 o----( --> )----------+ Term : Bi    ( | ) ice
---           |               \V/
/|\               |
( | ) ibe(vbe)     |
\V/               |
|                |
+----------------+--o 2 (E)
gyr v(1,Bi)
,---,
+---( <-- )------+
|    ---       |
tref   |                | voltage: ib/gyr
,---+                |
|   |    ,---,       |
|   +---( --> )------+ Term : ib
|        ---
---     gyr ib Rb(ib)
V

Charge sources are connected between internal nodes defined above. If xcjc is not 1 but RB is zero, xcjc is ignored.

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
area 1.0   Current multiplier
bf 100.0   Ideal maximum forward beta
br 1.0   Ideal maximum reverse beta
cjc 0.0 F Base collector zero bias p-n capacitance
cje 0.0 F Base emitter zero bias p-n capacitance
cjs 0.0 F Collector substrate capacitance
fc 0.5   Forward bias depletion capacitor coefficient
ikf 0.0 A Forward-beta high current roll-off knee current
ikr 0.0 A Corner for reverse-beta high current roll off
irb 0.0 A Current at which rb falls to half of rbm
isat 1e-16 A Transport saturation current
isc 0.0 A Base collector leakage saturation current
ise 0.0 A Base-emitter leakage saturation current
iss 1e-14 A Substrate saturation current
itf 0.0 A Transit time dependency on ic
mjc 0.33   Base collector p-n grading factor
mje 0.33   Base emitter p-n grading factor
mjs 0.0   substrate junction exponential factor
nc 2.0   Base-collector leakage emission coefficient
ne 1.5   Base-emitter leakage emission coefficient
nf 1.0   Forward current emission coefficient
nr 1.0   Reverse current emission coefficient
ns 1.0   substrate p-n coefficient
rb 0.0 Ohm Zero bias base resistance
rbm 0.0 Ohm Minimum base resistance
rc None Ohm Collector ohmic resistance
re None Ohm Emitter ohmic resistance
temp None C Device temperature (None: use global temp.)
tf 0.0 s Ideal forward transit time
tnom 27.0 C Nominal temperature
tr 0.0 s Ideal reverse transit time
type npn   Type (npn or pnp)
vaf 0.0 V Forward early voltage
var 0.0 V Reverse early voltage
vjc 0.75 V Base collector built in potential
vje 0.75 V Base emitter built in potential
vjs 0.75 V substrate junction built in potential
vtf 0.0 V Transit time dependency on vbc
xcjc 1.0   Fraction of cbc connected internal to rb
xtb 0.0   Forward and reverse beta temperature coefficient
xtf 0.0   Transit time bias dependence coefficient
xti 3.0   IS temperature effect exponent

#### Electro-thermal version¶

Electro-thermal version with extra thermal port: bjt_t

### bsim3_i: Intrinsic BSIM3 MOSFET Model (version 3.2.4)¶

This model mainly converted from fREEDA 2.0 mosnbsim3 model written by Ramya Mohan (http://www.freeda.org/) with some improvements. Also includes some code taken from ngspice (http://ngspice.sourceforge.net/) and pyEDA EDA Framework (https://github.com/cogenda/pyEDA). Results are reasonable but requires more testing

Default parameters listed for NMOS type. Default values for some parameters such as u0 and vth0 are different for PMOS type.

Notes:

• Most parameters are not checked for valid values
• According to ngspice documentation, temperature specification is not functional (probably the same applies here)
• Parameter descriptions need reviewing
• The code to internally calculate k1 and k2 is disabled by default because using default values seems to give more reasonable results (use k1enable to enable).

Terminal order: 0 Drain, 1 Gate, 2 Source, 3 Bulk:

         Drain 0
o
|
|
|---+
|
Gate 1 o-----|<-----o 3 Bulk
|
|---+
|
|
o
Source 2

Netlist examples:

bsim3_i:m1 2 3 4 gnd w=10e-6 l=1e-6 type = n
bsim3_i:m2 4 5 6 6 w=30e-6 l=1e-6 type = p

#### Internal topology¶

The internal topology is the following:

        ,----------------------------+-------------+--o 0 (D)
|                            |             |
/|\                           |             |
( | ) idb (Vds > 0)          -----           |
\V/                         ----- qd        |
|             1 (G)          |            /|\
|               o            |           ( | ) ids
|               |            |            \V/
|               |            |             |
|             -----          |             |
|             ----- qg       |      qs     |
|               |            |      ||     |
(B) 3 o-+---------------+------------+------||-----+--o 2 (S)
||

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
a0 1   Non-uniform depletion width effect coefficient
a1 0   Non-saturation effect coefficient
a2 1   Non-saturation effect coefficient
acde 1   Exponential coefficient for finite charge thickness
ags 0   Gate bias coefficient of Abulk
alpha0 0 m/V Substrate current model parameter
alpha1 0 V^{-1} Substrate current model parameter
at 33000 m/s Temperature coefficient of vsat
b0 0   Abulk narrow width parameter
b1 0   Abulk narrow width parameter
beta0 30 V Diode limiting current
cdsc 0.00024 F/m^2 Drain/Source and channel coupling capacitance
cdscb 0 F/V/m^2 Body-bias dependence of cdsc
cdscd 0 F/V/m^2 Drain-bias dependence of cdsc
cit 0   Interface state capacitance
clc 1e-07   Vdsat paramater for C-V model
cle 0.6   Vdsat paramater for C-V model
delta 0.01 V Effective Vds parameter
drout 0.56   DIBL coefficient of output resistance
dsub 0.56   DIBL coefficient in the subthreshold region
dvt0 2.2   Short channel effect coefficient 0
dvt0w 0 m^{-1} Narrow width effect coefficient 0
dvt1 0.53   Short channel effect coefficient 1
dvt1w 5300000.0 m^{-1} Narrow width effect coefficient 1
dvt2 -0.032 V^{-1} Short channel effect coefficient 2
dvt2w -0.032 V^{-1} Narrow width effect coefficient 2
dwb 0 m/V Width reduction parameter
dwg 0 m/V Width reduction parameter
elm 5   Non-quasi-static Elmore Constant Parameter
eta0 0.08   Subthreshold region DIBL coefficeint
etab -0.07   Subthreshold region DIBL coefficeint
k1 0.53 V^{0.5} First order body effect coefficient
k1enable 0   Enable k1, k2 internal calculation
k2 -0.0186   Second order body effect coefficient
k3 80   Narrow width effect coefficient
k3b 0   Body effect coefficient of k3
keta -0.047   Body-bias coefficient of non-uniform depletion width effect
kt1 -0.11 V Temperature coefficient of Vth
kt1l 0 V m Temperature coefficient of Vth
kt2 0.022   Body-coefficient of kt1
l 1e-06 m Length
lint 0 m Length reduction parameter
ll 0   Length reduction parameter
llc 0   Length reduction parameter for CV
lln 1   Length reduction parameter
lw 0   Length reduction parameter
lwc 0   Length reduction parameter for CV
lwl 0   Length reduction parameter
lwlc 0   Length reduction parameter for CV
lwn 1   Length reduction parameter
moin 15   Coefficient for gate-bias dependent surface potential
nch 1.7e+17 cm^{-3} Channel doping concentration
nfactor 1   Subthreshold swing coefficient
ngate 0 cm^{-3} Poly-gate doping concentration
nlx 1.74e-07 m Lateral non-uniform doping effect
noff 1   C-V turn-on/off parameter
nsub 6e+16 cm^{-3} Substrate doping concentration
pclm 1.3   Channel length modulation coefficient
pdibl1 0.39   Drain-induced barrier lowering oefficient
pdibl2 0.0086   Drain-induced barrier lowering oefficient
pdiblb 0   Body-effect on drain induced barrier lowering
prt 0   Temperature coefficient of parasitic resistance
prwb 0   Body-effect on parasitic resistance
prwg 0   Gate-bias effect on parasitic resistance
pscbe1 424000000.0 V/m Substrate current body-effect coeffiecient 1
pscbe2 1e-05 V/m Substrate current body-effect coeffiecient 2
pvag 0   Gate dependence of output resistance parameter
rdsw 0   Sorce-drain resistance per width
temp None C Device temperature (None: use global temp.)
tnom 27.0 C Nominal temperature
tox 1.5e-08 m Gate oxide thickness
toxm 1.5e-08   Gate oxide thickness used in extraction
type n   N- or P-channel MOS (n or p)
u0 670 cm^2/V/s Low-field mobility at Tnom
ua 2.25e-09 m/V Linear gate dependence of mobility
ua1 4.31e-09 m/V Temperature coefficient for ua
ub 5.87e-19 (m/V)^2 Quadratic gate dependence of mobility
ub1 -7.61e-18 (m/V)^2 Temperature coefficient for ub
uc -4.65e-11 m/V^2 Body-bias dependence of mobility
uc1 -5.6e-11 m/V^2 Temperature coefficient for uc
ute -1.5   Temperature coefficient of mobility
vbm -3 V Maximum body voltage
vfb -1 V Flat band voltage
voff -0.08 V Threshold voltage offset
voffcv 0   C-V lateral shift parameter
vsat 80000 m/s Saturationvelocity at tnom
vth0 0.7 V Threshold voltage of long channel device at Vbs=0 and small Vds
w 1e-06 m Width
w0 2.5e-06 m Narrow width effect parameter
wint 0 m Width reduction parameter
wl 0   Width reduction parameter
wlc 0   Width reduction parameter for CV
wln 1   Width reduction parameter
wr 1   Width dependence of rds
ww 0   Width reduction parameter
wwc 0   Width reduction parameter for CV
wwl 0   Width reduction parameter
wwlc 0   Width reduction parameter for CV
wwn 1   Width reduction parameter
xj 1.5e-07 m Junction depth
xt 1.55e-07 m Doping depth

### diode: Junction Diode¶

Based on the Spice model. Connection diagram:

  o  1
|
--+--
/ \
'-+-'
|
o  0

Includes depletion and diffusion charges.

Netlist examples:

diode:d1 1 0 isat=10fA cj0=20fF

# Electrothermal device
diode_t:d2 2 3 1000 gnd cj0=10pF tt=1e-12 rs=100 bv = 4.

# Model statement
.model dmodel1 diode (cj0 = 10pF tt=1ps)

#### Internal Topology¶

The internal representation is the following:

0  o
|
\
/ Rs
\
/
|   Term : t2
o---------,-------------,
| i(vin)      |
+         /|\          ----- q(vin)
vin        | | |         -----
-         \V/            |
|             |
1  o---------'-------------'

Terminal t2 not present if Rs = 0

#### Important Note¶

This implementation does not account for the power dissipation in Rs. Use an external thermal resistor if that is needed.

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
af 1.0   Flicker noise exponent
area 1.0   Area multiplier
bv inf V Breakdown voltage
cj0 0.0 F Zero-bias depletion capacitance
eg0 1.11 eV Energy bandgap
fc 0.5   Coefficient for forward-bias depletion capacitance
ibv 1e-10 A Current at reverse breakdown voltage
isat 1e-14 A Saturation current
kf 0.0   Flicker noise coefficient
m 0.5   PN junction grading coefficient
n 1.0   Emission coefficient
rs 0.0 Ohms Series resistance
temp None C Device temperature (None: use global temp.)
tnom 27.0 C Nominal temperature
tt 0.0 s Transit time
vj 1.0 V Built-in junction potential
xti 3.0   Is temperature exponent

#### Electro-thermal version¶

Electro-thermal version with extra thermal port: diode_t

### ekv_i: Intrinsic EPFL EKV 2.6 MOSFET¶

Terminal order: 0 Drain, 1 Gate, 2 Source, 3 Bulk:

         Drain 0
o
|
|
|---+
|
Gate 1 o-----|<-----o 3 Bulk
|
|---+
|
|
o
Source 2

Mostly based on , but some updates from a later revision (dated 1999) are also included.

 The EPFL-EKV MOSFET Model Equations for Simulation, Technical Report, Model Version 2.6, June, 1997, Revision I, September, 1997, Revision II, July, 1998, Bucher, Christophe Lallement, Christian Enz, Fabien Theodoloz, Francois Krummenacher, Electronics Laboratories, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland

This implementation includes accurate current interpolation function (optional), works for negative VDS and includes electrothermal model, DC operating point paramenters and noise equations.

Code originally based on fREEDA 1.4 implementation <http://www.freeda.org>:

// Element information
ItemInfo Mosnekv::einfo =
{
"mosnekv",
"EPFL EKV MOSFET model",
"Wonhoon Jang",
"2003_05_15"
};

Parameter limit checking, simple capacitance calculations for operating point are not yet implemented.

Netlist examples:

ekv_i:m1 2 3 4 gnd w=30e-6 l=1e-6 type = n ekvint=0

# Electro-thermal version
ekv_i_t:m1 2 3 4 gnd 1000 gnd w=30e-6 l=1e-6 type = n

# Model statement
.model ekvn ekv_i (type = n kp = 200u theta = 0.6)

#### Internal Topology¶

The internal topology is the following:

        ,----------------------------+-------------+--o 0 (D)
|                            |             |
/|\                           |             |
( | ) idb (Vds > 0)          -----           |
\V/                         ----- qd        |
|             1 (G)          |            /|\
|               o            |           ( | ) ids
|               |            |            \V/
|               |            |             |
|             -----          |             |
|             ----- qg       |      qs     |
|               |            |      ||     |
(B) 3 o-+---------------+------------+------||-----+--o 2 (S)
||

The impact ionization current (idb) is normally added to the drain current, but if the device is in reverse (Vds < 0 for N-channel) mode, it is added to the source current.

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
Lambda 0.5   Channel-length modulation
af 1.0   Flicker noise exponent
agamma 0.0 V^(1/2)m Area related body effect mismatch parameter
akp 0.0 m Area related gain mismatch parameter
avto 0.0 Vm Area related threshold voltage mismatch parameter
bex -1.5   Mobility temperature exponent
cox 0.0007 F/m^2 Gate oxide capacitance per area
dl 0.0 m Channel length correction
dw 0.0 m Channel width correction
e0 1e+12 V/m Mobility reduction coefficient
ekvint 0   Interpolation function (0: accurate, 1: simple)
gamma 1.0 V^1/2 Body effect parameter
iba 0.0 1/m First impact ionization coefficient
ibb 300000000.0 V/m Second impact ionization coefficient
ibbt 0.0009 1/K Temperature coefficient for IBB
ibn 1.0   Saturation voltage factor for impact ionization
kf 0.0   Flicker noise coefficient
kp 5e-05 A/V^2 Transconductance parameter
l 1e-06 m Gate length
leta 0.1   Short-channel effect coefficient
lk 2.9e-07 m Reverse short channel effect characteristic length
np 1.0   Parallel multiple device number
ns 1.0   Serial multiple device number
nsub None 1/cm^3 Channel doping
phi 0.7 V Bulk Fermi potential
q0 0.0 A.s/m^2 Reverse short channel effect peak charge density
satlim 54.5982   Ratio defining the saturation limit if/ir
tcv 0.001 V/K Threshold voltage temperature coefficient
temp None C Device temperature (None: use global temp.)
theta 0.0 1/V Mobility recuction coefficient
tnom 27.0 C Nominal temperature of model parameters
tox None m Oxide thickness
type n   N- or P-channel MOS (n or p)
u0 None cm^2/(V.s) Low-field mobility
ucex 0.8   Longitudinal critical field temperature exponent
ucrit 2000000.0 V/m Longitudinal critical field
vfb None V Flat-band voltage
vmax None m/s Saturation velocity
vt0 0.5 V Long_channel threshold voltage
w 1e-06 m Gate width
weta 0.25   Narrow-channel effect coefficient
xj 1e-07 m Junction depth

#### Electro-thermal version¶

Electro-thermal version with extra thermal port: ekv_i_t

### mesfetc: Cubic Curtice-Ettemberg Intrinsic MESFET Model¶

Model derived from fREEDA 1.4 MesfetCT model adapted to re-use junction code from diode.py. Some parameter names have been changed: isat, tau. Uses symmetric diodes and capacitances. Works in reversed mode.

Terminal order: 0 Drain, 1 Gate, 2 Source:

         Drain 0
o
|
|
|---+
|
Gate 1 o---->|
|
|---+
|
|
o
Source 2

Netlist example:

mesfetc:m1 2 3 4 a0=0.09910 a1=0.08541 a2=-0.02030 a3=-0.01543

Internal Topology:

           ,----------------,------------,--o 0 (D)
|                |            |
/^\               |            |
( | ) igd(Vgd)   ----- Cgd      |
\|/             -----          |
|                |           /|\
(G) 1 o----+----------------,          ( | ) ids(Vgs, Vgd)
|                |           \V/
/|\               |            |
( | ) igs(Vgs)   ----- Cgs      |
\V/             -----          |
|                |            |
----------------'------------'--o 2 (S)

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
a0 0.1 A Drain saturation current for Vgs=0
a1 0.05 A/V Coefficient for V1
a2 0.0 A/V^2 Coefficient for V1^2
a3 0.0 A/V^3 Coefficient for V1^3
area 1.0   Area multiplier
avt0 0.0 1/K Pinch-off voltage (VP0 or VT0) linear temp. coefficient
beta 0.0 1/V V1 dependance on Vds
bvt0 0.0 1/K^2 Pinch-off voltage (VP0 or VT0) quadratic temp. coefficient
cgd0 0.0 F Gate-drain Schottky barrier capacitance for Vgd=0
cgs0 0.0 F Gate-source Schottky barrier capacitance for Vgs=0
eg0 0.8 eV Barrier height at 0 K
fcc 0.5 V Forward-bias depletion capacitance coefficient
gama 1.5 1/V Slope of drain characteristic in the linear region
ib0 0.0 A Breakdown current parameter
isat 0.0 A Diode saturation current
n 1.0   Diode ideality factor
nr 10.0   Breakdown ideality factor
tau 0.0 s Channel transit time
tbet 0 1/K BETA power law temperature coefficient
temp None C Device temperature (None: use global temp.)
tm 0.0 1/K Ids linear temp. coeff.
tme 0.0 1/K^2 Ids power law temp. coeff.
tnom 27.0 C Nominal temperature
vbd inf V Breakdown voltage
vbi 0.8 V Built-in potential of the Schottky junctions
vds0 4.0 V Vds at which BETA was measured
vt0 -inf V Voltage at which the channel current is forced to be zero for Vgs<=Vto
xti 2.0   Diode saturation current temperature exponent

#### Electro-thermal version¶

Electro-thermal version with extra thermal port: mesfetc_t

### mosbsim3: Extrinsic Silicon MOSFET¶

#### Extrinsic Internal Topology¶

The model adds the following to the intrinsic model (for NMOS):

                               o D (0)
|
\
Cgdo           / Rd       Drain/source area plus
\          sidewall model
||            |-----------,-----,
,------||------------|           |     |
|      ||            |         ----- -----
|                ||---         -----  / \
|                ||              |   -----
G (1) o---+----------------||<-------------+-----+------o B (3)
|                ||              |   -----
|                ||---         -----  \ /
|      ||            |         ----- -----
------||------------|           |     |
||            |-----------'-----'
\
Cgso           / Rs
\
|
o S (2)

Note 1: electrothermal implementation (if any) does not account for the power dissipation in Rd and Rs. Use external thermal resistors if that is needed.

Note 2: operating point information is given for just one intrinsic device even if m > 1.

#### Netlist examples¶

The model accepts extrinsic plus intrinsic parameters (only extrinsic parameters shown in example):

mosbsim3:m1 2 3 4 gnd w=10u l=1u asrc=4e-12 ps=8e=12 model=nch
mosbsim3:m2 4 5 6 6 w=30e-6 l=1e-6 pd=8u ps=16u type=p

.model nch mosbsim3 (type=n js=1e-3 cj=2e-4 cjsw=1n)

#### Intrinsic model¶

See bsim3_i intrinsic model documentation.

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
a0 1   Non-uniform depletion width effect coefficient
a1 0   Non-saturation effect coefficient
a2 1   Non-saturation effect coefficient
acde 1   Exponential coefficient for finite charge thickness
ags 0   Gate bias coefficient of Abulk
alpha0 0 m/V Substrate current model parameter
alpha1 0 V^{-1} Substrate current model parameter
asrc 0.0 m^2 Source area
at 33000 m/s Temperature coefficient of vsat
b0 0   Abulk narrow width parameter
b1 0   Abulk narrow width parameter
beta0 30 V Diode limiting current
cdsc 0.00024 F/m^2 Drain/Source and channel coupling capacitance
cdscb 0 F/V/m^2 Body-bias dependence of cdsc
cdscd 0 F/V/m^2 Drain-bias dependence of cdsc
cgbo 0.0 F/m Gate-bulk overlap capacitance per meter channel length
cgdo 0.0 F/m Gate-drain overlap capacitance per meter channel width
cgso 0.0 F/m Gate-source overlap capacitance per meter channel width
cit 0   Interface state capacitance
cj 0.0 F/m^2 Source drain junction capacitance per unit area
cjsw 0.0 F/m Source drain junction sidewall capacitance per unit length
clc 1e-07   Vdsat paramater for C-V model
cle 0.6   Vdsat paramater for C-V model
delta 0.01 V Effective Vds parameter
drout 0.56   DIBL coefficient of output resistance
dsub 0.56   DIBL coefficient in the subthreshold region
dvt0 2.2   Short channel effect coefficient 0
dvt0w 0 m^{-1} Narrow width effect coefficient 0
dvt1 0.53   Short channel effect coefficient 1
dvt1w 5300000.0 m^{-1} Narrow width effect coefficient 1
dvt2 -0.032 V^{-1} Short channel effect coefficient 2
dvt2w -0.032 V^{-1} Narrow width effect coefficient 2
dwb 0 m/V Width reduction parameter
dwg 0 m/V Width reduction parameter
eg0 1.11 eV Energy bandgap
elm 5   Non-quasi-static Elmore Constant Parameter
eta0 0.08   Subthreshold region DIBL coefficeint
etab -0.07   Subthreshold region DIBL coefficeint
fc 0.5   Coefficient for forward-bias depletion capacitances
js 0.0 A/m^2 Source drain junction current density
jssw 0.0 A/m Source drain sidewall junction current density
k1 0.53 V^{0.5} First order body effect coefficient
k1enable 0   Enable k1, k2 internal calculation
k2 -0.0186   Second order body effect coefficient
k3 80   Narrow width effect coefficient
k3b 0   Body effect coefficient of k3
keta -0.047   Body-bias coefficient of non-uniform depletion width effect
kt1 -0.11 V Temperature coefficient of Vth
kt1l 0 V m Temperature coefficient of Vth
kt2 0.022   Body-coefficient of kt1
l 1e-06 m Length
lint 0 m Length reduction parameter
ll 0   Length reduction parameter
llc 0   Length reduction parameter for CV
lln 1   Length reduction parameter
lw 0   Length reduction parameter
lwc 0   Length reduction parameter for CV
lwl 0   Length reduction parameter
lwlc 0   Length reduction parameter for CV
lwn 1   Length reduction parameter
m 1.0   Parallel multiplier
mj 0.5   Grading coefficient of source drain junction
mjsw 0.33   Grading coefficient of source drain junction sidewall
moin 15   Coefficient for gate-bias dependent surface potential
nch 1.7e+17 cm^{-3} Channel doping concentration
nfactor 1   Subthreshold swing coefficient
ngate 0 cm^{-3} Poly-gate doping concentration
nlx 1.74e-07 m Lateral non-uniform doping effect
noff 1   C-V turn-on/off parameter
nrd 1.0 squares Number of squares in drain
nrs 1.0 squares Number of squares in source
nsub 6e+16 cm^{-3} Substrate doping concentration
pb 0.8 V Built in potential of source drain junction
pbsw 0.8 V Built in potential of source, drain junction sidewall
pclm 1.3   Channel length modulation coefficient
pd 0.0 m Drain perimeter
pdibl1 0.39   Drain-induced barrier lowering oefficient
pdibl2 0.0086   Drain-induced barrier lowering oefficient
pdiblb 0   Body-effect on drain induced barrier lowering
prt 0   Temperature coefficient of parasitic resistance
prwb 0   Body-effect on parasitic resistance
prwg 0   Gate-bias effect on parasitic resistance
ps 0.0 m Source perimeter
pscbe1 424000000.0 V/m Substrate current body-effect coeffiecient 1
pscbe2 1e-05 V/m Substrate current body-effect coeffiecient 2
pvag 0   Gate dependence of output resistance parameter
rdsw 0   Sorce-drain resistance per width
rsh 0.0 Ohm/square Drain and source diffusion sheet resistance
temp None C Device temperature (None: use global temp.)
tnom 27.0 C Nominal temperature
tox 1.5e-08 m Gate oxide thickness
toxm 1.5e-08   Gate oxide thickness used in extraction
type n   N- or P-channel MOS (n or p)
u0 670 cm^2/V/s Low-field mobility at Tnom
ua 2.25e-09 m/V Linear gate dependence of mobility
ua1 4.31e-09 m/V Temperature coefficient for ua
ub 5.87e-19 (m/V)^2 Quadratic gate dependence of mobility
ub1 -7.61e-18 (m/V)^2 Temperature coefficient for ub
uc -4.65e-11 m/V^2 Body-bias dependence of mobility
uc1 -5.6e-11 m/V^2 Temperature coefficient for uc
ute -1.5   Temperature coefficient of mobility
vbm -3 V Maximum body voltage
vfb -1 V Flat band voltage
voff -0.08 V Threshold voltage offset
voffcv 0   C-V lateral shift parameter
vsat 80000 m/s Saturationvelocity at tnom
vth0 0.7 V Threshold voltage of long channel device at Vbs=0 and small Vds
w 1e-06 m Width
w0 2.5e-06 m Narrow width effect parameter
wint 0 m Width reduction parameter
wl 0   Width reduction parameter
wlc 0   Width reduction parameter for CV
wln 1   Width reduction parameter
wr 1   Width dependence of rds
ww 0   Width reduction parameter
wwc 0   Width reduction parameter for CV
wwl 0   Width reduction parameter
wwlc 0   Width reduction parameter for CV
wwn 1   Width reduction parameter
xj 1.5e-07 m Junction depth
xt 1.55e-07 m Doping depth
xti 3.0   Junction saturation current temperature exponent

### mosekv: Extrinsic Silicon MOSFET¶

#### Extrinsic Internal Topology¶

The model adds the following to the intrinsic model (for NMOS):

                               o D (0)
|
\
Cgdo           / Rd       Drain/source area plus
\          sidewall model
||            |-----------,-----,
,------||------------|           |     |
|      ||            |         ----- -----
|                ||---         -----  / \
|                ||              |   -----
G (1) o---+----------------||<-------------+-----+------o B (3)
|                ||              |   -----
|                ||---         -----  \ /
|      ||            |         ----- -----
------||------------|           |     |
||            |-----------'-----'
\
Cgso           / Rs
\
|
o S (2)

Note 1: electrothermal implementation (if any) does not account for the power dissipation in Rd and Rs. Use external thermal resistors if that is needed.

Note 2: operating point information is given for just one intrinsic device even if m > 1.

#### Netlist examples¶

The model accepts extrinsic plus intrinsic parameters (only extrinsic parameters shown in example):

mosekv:m1 2 3 4 gnd w=10u l=1u asrc=4e-12 ps=8e=12 model=nch
mosekv:m2 4 5 6 6 w=30e-6 l=1e-6 pd=8u ps=16u type=p

.model nch mosekv (type=n js=1e-3 cj=2e-4 cjsw=1n)

#### Intrinsic model¶

See ekv_i intrinsic model documentation.

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
Lambda 0.5   Channel-length modulation
af 1.0   Flicker noise exponent
agamma 0.0 V^(1/2)m Area related body effect mismatch parameter
akp 0.0 m Area related gain mismatch parameter
asrc 0.0 m^2 Source area
avto 0.0 Vm Area related threshold voltage mismatch parameter
bex -1.5   Mobility temperature exponent
cgbo 0.0 F/m Gate-bulk overlap capacitance per meter channel length
cgdo 0.0 F/m Gate-drain overlap capacitance per meter channel width
cgso 0.0 F/m Gate-source overlap capacitance per meter channel width
cj 0.0 F/m^2 Source drain junction capacitance per unit area
cjsw 0.0 F/m Source drain junction sidewall capacitance per unit length
cox 0.0007 F/m^2 Gate oxide capacitance per area
dl 0.0 m Channel length correction
dw 0.0 m Channel width correction
e0 1e+12 V/m Mobility reduction coefficient
eg0 1.11 eV Energy bandgap
ekvint 0   Interpolation function (0: accurate, 1: simple)
fc 0.5   Coefficient for forward-bias depletion capacitances
gamma 1.0 V^1/2 Body effect parameter
iba 0.0 1/m First impact ionization coefficient
ibb 300000000.0 V/m Second impact ionization coefficient
ibbt 0.0009 1/K Temperature coefficient for IBB
ibn 1.0   Saturation voltage factor for impact ionization
js 0.0 A/m^2 Source drain junction current density
jssw 0.0 A/m Source drain sidewall junction current density
kf 0.0   Flicker noise coefficient
kp 5e-05 A/V^2 Transconductance parameter
l 1e-06 m Gate length
leta 0.1   Short-channel effect coefficient
lk 2.9e-07 m Reverse short channel effect characteristic length
m 1.0   Parallel multiplier
mj 0.5   Grading coefficient of source drain junction
mjsw 0.33   Grading coefficient of source drain junction sidewall
np 1.0   Parallel multiple device number
nrd 1.0 squares Number of squares in drain
nrs 1.0 squares Number of squares in source
ns 1.0   Serial multiple device number
nsub None 1/cm^3 Channel doping
pb 0.8 V Built in potential of source drain junction
pbsw 0.8 V Built in potential of source, drain junction sidewall
pd 0.0 m Drain perimeter
phi 0.7 V Bulk Fermi potential
ps 0.0 m Source perimeter
q0 0.0 A.s/m^2 Reverse short channel effect peak charge density
rsh 0.0 Ohm/square Drain and source diffusion sheet resistance
satlim 54.5982   Ratio defining the saturation limit if/ir
tcv 0.001 V/K Threshold voltage temperature coefficient
temp None C Device temperature (None: use global temp.)
theta 0.0 1/V Mobility recuction coefficient
tnom 27.0 C Nominal temperature of model parameters
tox None m Oxide thickness
type n   N- or P-channel MOS (n or p)
u0 None cm^2/(V.s) Low-field mobility
ucex 0.8   Longitudinal critical field temperature exponent
ucrit 2000000.0 V/m Longitudinal critical field
vfb None V Flat-band voltage
vmax None m/s Saturation velocity
vt0 0.5 V Long_channel threshold voltage
w 1e-06 m Gate width
weta 0.25   Narrow-channel effect coefficient
xj 1e-07 m Junction depth
xti 3.0   Junction saturation current temperature exponent

#### Electro-thermal version¶

Electro-thermal version with extra thermal port: mosekv_t

### svbjt: Bipolar Junction Transistor¶

This device accepts 3 or 4 terminal connections.

Netlist examples:

bjt:q1 2 3 4 1 model = mypnp isat=4e-17 bf=147 iss=10fA
bjt:q2 2 3 4  model = mypnp isat=4e-17 bf=147 vaf=80 ikf=4m
svbjt:q3 2 3 4 1 model = mypnp vaf=80 ikf=4m iss=15fA

# Electro-thermal versions
bjt_t:q2 2 3 5 1 pout gnd model = mypnp
svbjt_t:q3 2 3 5 1 pout gnd model = mypnp

# Model statement
.model mypnp bjt_t (type=pnp isat=5e-17 cje=60fF vje=0.83 mje=0.35)

#### Extrinsic Internal Topology¶

RC, RE and a Collector-Bulk connection are added to intrinsic BJT models:

            RC    Term: ct      Term: et   RE
C (0) o---/\/\/\/--+-----,         4----/\/\/\/----o  E (2)
|      \       /
|       \     /
-----    ---------
/ \         |
/   \        o
-----
|          B (1)
o Bulk (3)

If RE or RC are zero the internal nodes (ct, et) are not created. If only 3 connections are specified then the Bulk-Collector junction is not connected.

#### Important Note¶

This implementation does not account for the power dissipation in RE, RC. Use external thermal resistors if that is needed.

#### Intrinsic Model Information¶

State-variable-based Gummel-Poon intrinsic BJT model based

This implementation based mainly on previous implementation in carrot and some equations from Pspice manual, with the addition of the state-variable definitions.

Terminal order: 0 Collector, 1 Base, 2 Emitter, (3 Bulk, not included):

C (0) o----,         4----o  E (2)
\       /
\     /
---------
|
o

B (1)

Can be used for NPN or PNP transistors.

#### Intrinsic Internal Topology¶

The state variable formulation is achieved by replacing the BE and BC diodes (Ibf, Ibr) with state-variable based diodes. This requires two additional variables (nodes) but eliminates large positive exponentials from the model:

                     Term : x2
+--------------------------+
|                          |
/|\                        /^\
( | ) gyr v2               ( | ) gyr vbc(x)
\V/                        \|/
tref     |                          |
,----+--------------------------+
|    |                          |
|   /^\                        /|\
|  ( | ) gyr v1               ( | ) gyr vbe(x)
---  \|/                        \V/
V    |                          |
+--------------------------+
Term : x1

All currents/charges in the model are functions of voltages v3 (x2) and v4 (x1). Note that vbc and vbe are now also functions of x1, x2.

In addition we may need 2 additional nodes (plus reference) if rb is not zero: Bi for the internal base node and tib to measure the internal base current and calculate Rb(ib).

1. If RB == 0:

                +----------------+--o 0 (C)
-      |                |
/^\               |
v2    ( | ) ibc(x2)      |
\|/               |
+      |               /|\
(B) 1 o---------+              ( | ) ice(x1,x2)
+      |               \V/
/|\               |
v1    ( | ) ibe(x1)      |
\V/               |
-      |                |
+----------------+--o 2 (E)
2. If RB != 0 and IRB != 0:

                            +----------------+--o 0 (C)
-    |                |
/^\               |
gyr tib      v2  ( | ) ibc(x2)      |
\|/               |
,---,      +    |               /|\
(B) 1 o----( --> )----------+ Term : Bi    ( | ) ice(x1,x2)
---      +    |               \V/
/|\               |
v1  ( | ) ibe(x1)      |
\V/               |
-    |                |
gyr v(1,Bi)       +----------------+--o 2 (E)

,---,
+---( <-- ) -----+
|    ---       |
tref   |                | ib/gyr
,--+                |
|  |    ,---,       | Term : ib
|  +---( --> )------+
|       ---
---
V     gyr ib Rb(ib)

Charge sources are connected between internal nodes defined above. If xcjc is not 1 but RB is zero, xcjc is ignored.

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
area 1.0   Current multiplier
bf 100.0   Ideal maximum forward beta
br 1.0   Ideal maximum reverse beta
cjc 0.0 F Base collector zero bias p-n capacitance
cje 0.0 F Base emitter zero bias p-n capacitance
cjs 0.0 F Collector substrate capacitance
fc 0.5   Forward bias depletion capacitor coefficient
ikf 0.0 A Forward-beta high current roll-off knee current
ikr 0.0 A Corner for reverse-beta high current roll off
irb 0.0 A Current at which rb falls to half of rbm
isat 1e-16 A Transport saturation current
isc 0.0 A Base collector leakage saturation current
ise 0.0 A Base-emitter leakage saturation current
iss 1e-14 A Substrate saturation current
itf 0.0 A Transit time dependency on ic
mjc 0.33   Base collector p-n grading factor
mje 0.33   Base emitter p-n grading factor
mjs 0.0   substrate junction exponential factor
nc 2.0   Base-collector leakage emission coefficient
ne 1.5   Base-emitter leakage emission coefficient
nf 1.0   Forward current emission coefficient
nr 1.0   Reverse current emission coefficient
ns 1.0   substrate p-n coefficient
rb 0.0 Ohm Zero bias base resistance
rbm 0.0 Ohm Minimum base resistance
rc None Ohm Collector ohmic resistance
re None Ohm Emitter ohmic resistance
temp None C Device temperature (None: use global temp.)
tf 0.0 s Ideal forward transit time
tnom 27.0 C Nominal temperature
tr 0.0 s Ideal reverse transit time
type npn   Type (npn or pnp)
vaf 0.0 V Forward early voltage
var 0.0 V Reverse early voltage
vjc 0.75 V Base collector built in potential
vje 0.75 V Base emitter built in potential
vjs 0.75 V substrate junction built in potential
vtf 0.0 V Transit time dependency on vbc
xcjc 1.0   Fraction of cbc connected internal to rb
xtb 0.0   Forward and reverse beta temperature coefficient
xtf 0.0   Transit time bias dependence coefficient
xti 3.0   IS temperature effect exponent

#### Electro-thermal version¶

Electro-thermal version with extra thermal port: svbjt_t

### svdiode: State-Variable-Based Diode¶

Based on spice model. Connection diagram:

  o  1
|
--+--
/ \
'-+-'
|
o  0

This model has better convergence properties. Externally it behaves exactly like the regular diode device.

Implementation includes depletion and diffusion charges.

Netlist examples:

svdiode:d1 1 0 isat=10fA cj0=20fF

# Electrothermal device
svdiode_t:d2 2 3 1000 gnd cj0=10pF tt=1e-12 rs=100 bv = 4.

# Model statement
.model dmodel1 svdiode (cj0 = 10pF tt=1ps)

#### Internal Topology¶

The internal representation is the following:

0  o
|
\
/ Rs
\
/
|  Term : t2                       Term : x
o---------+                  +----------------+
| i(x)+dq/dt       |                |
+         /|\                /|\ gyr vin      /^\
vin        | | |              | | |            | | | gyr v(x)
-         \V/                \V/              \|/
|                  |                |
1  o---------+                  +--------+-------+
|
--- tref
V

Terminal t2 not present if Rs = 0

#### Important Note¶

This implementation does not account for the power dissipation in Rs. Use an external thermal resistor if that is needed.

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
af 1.0   Flicker noise exponent
area 1.0   Area multiplier
bv inf V Breakdown voltage
cj0 0.0 F Zero-bias depletion capacitance
eg0 1.11 eV Energy bandgap
fc 0.5   Coefficient for forward-bias depletion capacitance
ibv 1e-10 A Current at reverse breakdown voltage
isat 1e-14 A Saturation current
kf 0.0   Flicker noise coefficient
m 0.5   PN junction grading coefficient
n 1.0   Emission coefficient
rs 0.0 Ohms Series resistance
temp None C Device temperature (None: use global temp.)
tnom 27.0 C Nominal temperature
tt 0.0 s Transit time
vj 1.0 V Built-in junction potential
xti 3.0   Is temperature exponent

#### Electro-thermal version¶

Electro-thermal version with extra thermal port: svdiode_t

## Sources¶

### idc: DC current source¶

Schematic:

            idc
,---,
0 o-------( --> )---------o 1
---

Temperature dependence: Netlist example:

idc:is1 gnd 4 idc=2mA

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
idc 0.0 A DC current
tc1 0.0 1/C Current temperature coefficient 1
tc2 0.0 1/C^2 Current temperature coefficient 2
temp None C Device temperature (None: use global temp.)
tnom 27.0 C Nominal temperature

### ipulse: Pulse current source¶

Connection diagram:

           ,---,  iout
0 o-------( --> )---------o 1
'---'

iout = pulse(t)

This source only works for time domain. It is equivalent to an open circuit for DC or frequency-domain.

Netlist example:

ipulse:i1 gnd 4 i1=-1V i2=1V td=1ms pw=10ms per=20ms

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
i1 0.0 A Initial value
i2 0.0 A Pulsed value
per inf s Period
pw inf s Pulse width
td 0.0 s Delay time
tf 0.0 s Fall time
tr 0.0 s Rise time

### isin: (Co-)Sinusoidal current source¶

Connection diagram:

           ,---,  iout
0 o-------( --> )---------o 1
'---'

iout = idc + mag * cos(2 * pi * freq * t + phase)

This source works for time and frequency domain. For AC analysis, the ‘acmag’ parameter is provided. By default acmag = mag.

Netlist example:

isin:i1 gnd 4 idc=2mA amp=2mA freq=1GHz phase=90

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
acmag None A Amplitude for AC analysis only
freq 1000.0 Hz Frequency
idc 0.0 A DC current
mag 0.0 A Amplitude
phase 0.0 degrees Phase

### vdc: DC voltage source¶

Schematic:

            ,---,  vdc       Rint
1 o--------( - + )---------/\/\/\/\--------o 0
'---'

Rint is independent of temperature. Teperature dependence of vdc is as follows: Netlist example:

vdc:vdd vddnode gnd vdc=3V

#### Internal Topology¶

A gyrator is used to convert a current source into a voltage source if Rint is zero:

                               i/gyr      Term: i
0  o---------+            +----------------+
| gyr V(i)   |                |
+         /|\          /|\              /^\
vin        ( | )        ( | ) gyr vin    ( | ) gyr vdc
-         \V/          \V/              \|/
|            |                |
1  o---------+            +----------------+
|
--- tref
V

Otherwise a Norton equivalent circuit is used.

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
rint 0.0 Ohms Internal resistance
tc1 0.0 1/C Voltage temperature coefficient 1
tc2 0.0 1/C^2 Voltage temperature coefficient 2
temp None C Device temperature (None: use global temp.)
tnom 27.0 C Nominal temperature
vdc 0.0 V DC voltage

### vpulse: Pulse voltage source¶

Connection diagram:

            ,---,  vout       Rint
1 o--------( - + )---------/\/\/\/\--------o 0
'---'

vout = vpulse(t)

This source only works for time domain. It is equivalent to a short circuit (or rint) for DC or frequency-domain.

Netlist example:

vpulse:vin 4 0 v1=-1V v2=1V td=1ms pw=10ms per=20ms

Same as vdc.

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
per inf s Period
pw inf s Pulse width
rint 0.0 Ohms Internal resistance
td 0.0 s Delay time
tf 0.0 s Fall time
tr 0.0 s Rise time
v1 0.0 V Initial value
v2 0.0 V Pulsed value

### vsin: (Co-)Sinusoidal voltage source¶

Connection diagram:

            ,---,  vout       Rint
1 o--------( - + )---------/\/\/\/\--------o 0
'---'

vout = vdc + mag * cos(2 * pi * freq * t + phase)

This source works for time and frequency domain. For AC analysis, the ‘acmag’ parameter is provided. By default acmag = mag.

Netlist example:

vsin:vin 4 gnd vdc=2V amp=1V freq=1GHz phase=90`

Same as vdc.

#### Parameters¶

Name Default Unit Description
acmag None V Amplitude for AC analysis only
freq 1000.0 Hz Frequency
mag 0.0 V Amplitude
phase 0.0 degrees Phase
rint 0.0 Ohms Internal resistance
vdc 0.0 V DC voltage